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APA (American Psychological Association)

American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely accepted style of documentation, particularly in the social sciences. APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting, and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation features. APA style uses the author-date style of parenthetical referencing, with such source citations keyed to a subsequent list of "References." Also known as the Harvard Style.

Online guides


Data sets

Minimum requirements based on instructions and example for dataset reference:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

With optional elements:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. Detroit: Wayne State University [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

Example sites

  • APA from the American Psychological Association. Excerpts from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References and the 6th edition of the Publication Manual. The material provided covers frequently asked questions regarding how to cite electronic media.
  • APA Citation Fox from the University at Albany, State University of New York, based on the 6th edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
  • APA Style Essentials - from Vanguard University of Southern California. Core elements of the 6th edition.
  • APA Research Style Crib Sheet from Psych Web. A summary of rules for using APA style as documented in the 5th edition of the APA publication manual.
  • APA Formatting and Style Guide from the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University. A thorough guide on the 6th edition APA style including print and electronic sources.
  • Flowchart for using DOIs and URLs in citations from

Print style guides

book jacket
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
Edition: 6th ed.
Publication Info.: Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2010.
Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2010

EndNote output styles

Style manuals in the University Libraries collections

Book and ebook versions of major styles guides.

EndNote at Virginia Tech


EndNote is bibliographic manager software allows researchers to save and organize results of database searches or lists of bibliographic references. A web-based product called EndNote Online is also available.

Virginia Tech's site license for EndNote has been renewed until May 2020. This means that current users of EndNote can continue to use the software without interruption, and new users of EndNote can download the software knowing that it will be available until at least 2020.

EndNote Online

EndNote Online is the cloud-based version of EndNote. There is a free version anyone (including alumni) can use; students, faculty, and staff have access to the full version of EndNote web (that can sync with your installed desktop version) because of our subscription to Web of Science. You can install browser extensions to ease access to your EndNote libraries while searching online.