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APA (American Psychological Association)

American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely accepted style of documentation, particularly in the social sciences. APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting, and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation features. APA style uses the author-date style of parenthetical referencing, with such source citations keyed to a subsequent list of "References." Also known as the Harvard Style.

The sixth edition of the APA style guide was published in July 2009. Many online guides have not yet been updated to reflect the changes in this edition. Be aware of what edition is required for your paper and what edition you are using.

The APA has published several corrections to the sixth edition: Errors in APA Style Rules, Errors in Examples, Clarifications, and Nonsignificant Typographical Errors.

Online guides

Data sets

Minimum requirements based on instructions and example for dataset reference:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

With optional elements:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. Detroit: Wayne State University [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

Example sites

  • APA Style.org from the American Psychological Association. Excerpts from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References and the 6th edition of the Publication Manual. The material provided covers frequently asked questions regarding how to cite electronic media.
  • APA Citation Fox from the University at Albany, State University of New York, based on the 6th edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
  • APA Documentation Style (University of Wisconsin - Madison Writing Center site based on information from the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (Includes information on citing electronic and print sources)
  • APA Format University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, Writer's Workshop site based on information from the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (Includes information on citing electronic and print sources).
  • APA Style Essentials - from Vanguard University of Southern California. Core elements of the 6th edition.
  • APA Research Style Crib Sheet from Psych Web. A summary of rules for using APA style as documented in the 5th edition of the APA publication manual.
  • APA Formatting and Style Guide from the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University. A thorough guide on the 6th edition APA style including print and electronic sources.
  • Flowchart for using DOIs and URLs in citations from APA.org

Print style guides

book jacket
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
Edition: 6th ed.
Publication Info.: Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2010.
Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2010

EndNote output styles


Style manuals in the University Libraries collections

Book and ebook versions of major styles guides.



EndNote at Virginia Tech

    EndNote
EndNote is a software product that allows researchers to save and organize results of database searches or lists of bibliographic references. There are several similar products (ProCite, Reference Manager, RefWorks, WriteNote, Zotero, and Bookends) that provide the same functionality, but the university has a site license for EndNote only. A web-based product called EndNote Web is also available.

EndNote Web

From the Web of Knowledge portal, you can click on the register for more features link, create an account using your Virginia Tech email address, and then Sign in to access EndNote Web from the portal. If you have previously established an account at the Web of Knowledge portal, you can access EndNote Web without taking any additional steps. Alternatively, go directly to the EndNote Web site and Sign Up for an account. You must use your Virginia Tech email address when you register.