Skip Menu

Return to Skip Menu

Main Content

APA (American Psychological Association)

American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely accepted style of documentation, particularly in the social sciences. APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting, and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation features. APA style uses the author-date style of parenthetical referencing, with such source citations keyed to a subsequent list of "References." Also known as the Harvard Style.

The sixth edition of the APA style guide was published in July 2009. Many online guides have not yet been updated to reflect the changes in this edition. Be aware of what edition is required for your paper and what edition you are using.

The APA has published several corrections to the sixth edition: Errors in APA Style Rules, Errors in Examples, Clarifications, and Nonsignificant Typographical Errors.

Online guides

Data sets

Minimum requirements based on instructions and example for dataset reference:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

With optional elements:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. Detroit: Wayne State University [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

Example sites

  • APA Style.org from the American Psychological Association. Excerpts from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References and the 6th edition of the Publication Manual. The material provided covers frequently asked questions regarding how to cite electronic media.
  • APA Citation Fox from the University at Albany, State University of New York, based on the 6th edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
  • APA Documentation Style (University of Wisconsin - Madison Writing Center site based on information from the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (Includes information on citing electronic and print sources)
  • APA Format University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, Writer's Workshop site based on information from the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (Includes information on citing electronic and print sources).
  • APA Style Essentials - from Vanguard University of Southern California. Core elements of the 6th edition.
  • APA Research Style Crib Sheet from Psych Web. A summary of rules for using APA style as documented in the 5th edition of the APA publication manual.
  • APA Formatting and Style Guide from the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University. A thorough guide on the 6th edition APA style including print and electronic sources.
  • Flowchart for using DOIs and URLs in citations from APA.org

Print style guides

book jacket
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
Edition: 6th ed.
Publication Info.: Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2010.
Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2010

EndNote output styles


Style manuals in the University Libraries collections

Book and ebook versions of major styles guides.



EndNote at Virginia Tech

    EndNote

EndNote is bibliographic manager software allows researchers to save and organize results of database searches or lists of bibliographic references. A web-based product called EndNote Online is also available.

The university's site license for EndNote will end on May 1, 2017. After this date, EndNote will be available for individual purchase through Software Distribution, just like Microsoft and Adobe software packages. Access to the free version of EndNote Online will continue. We recommend users consider one of the freely available citation managers like Zotero or Mendeley.


EndNote Online

EndNote Online is the cloud-based version of EndNote. There is a free version anyone (including alumni) can use; students, faculty, and staff have access to the full version of EndNote web (that can sync with your installed desktop version) because of our subscription to Web of Science. You can install browser extensions to ease access to your EndNote libraries while searching online.