When you are supplied a citation for an article, book, or other source in a bibliography or your professor's syllabus, you'll need to parse and understand the parts of that citation to be able to find it.
Reardon, D. (2006). Doing your undergraduate project. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Incorporated.
The place of publication and publisher's name is the giveaway. Also notice there is a single title (articles will have two) and a lack of page numbers (though in-text citations will often supply a specific page number or range).
Shaw, K., Holbrook, A., & Bourke, S. (2013). Student experience of final-year undergraduate research projects: An exploration of research preparedness. Studies in Higher Education, 38(5), 711-727. doi:10.1080/03075079.2011.592937
The appearance of two titles (article and journal), plus the volume and issue numbers show this is a journal article. Sometimes the date will include a month or season. The article title may appear in quotes. In place of the DOI, some citation styles list the source database where the article was accessed.
Area MU students among participants in undergraduate research day. (2012). The Charleston Gazette, pp. 10.
The two titles and the lack of volume and issue numbers are the best clue here (plus common newspaper titles terms like Times, Record, Dispatch, Enquirer, Herald, Courier, and here, Gazette).
Wong, W. E. (2012). Involving undergraduates in research: Motivations and challenges. 2012 IEEE 25th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Nanjing, China. 148-148. doi:10.1109/CSEET.2012.35
Conference papers can be difficult to find, since the title of the publication in which they are found (the proceedings) can be referred to in many ways: name of the conference, sponsor of the conference, location of the conference, topic of the conference, etc. Here, the two titles (paper and proceedings) plus the location of the conference are the clues (having the word conference or proceedings in the title helps too).