A shortened version of a book, document, etc
A concise and accurate representation of the contents of a document, usually without interpretation or bias, accompanied by a bibliographic reference
A word formed from the initial letter or letters of the name of an organization, system, or service, e.g., NASA -- the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The Virginia Tech University Libraries online catalog. The name comes from William Addison Caldwell who, in 1872, was the first student to register at the newly opened Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College. More information
A publication containing useful facts and statistical information; usually published annually. Some almanacs are general while others are specific, such as the Weather Almanac.
A bibliography in which each citation is followed by an annotation or summary of the item.
A note accompanying an entry in a bibliography, reading list, or catalog intended to describe, explain, or evaluate the subject and content of the publication referred to.
A serial publication, e.g. a report, yearbook, directory, etc. issued once a year.
A collection of choice extracts, usually of poetry, or on one subject, from the writings of one author, or various authors, and having a common characteristic such as subject matter or literary form.
A volume of maps, plates, engravings, tables, etc., with or without descriptive letterpress. It may be an independent publication or it may be issued to accompany one or more volumes of text.
Non-book materials, such as audio cassettes, video cassettes, compact discs, filmstrips, phonograph records, optical discs, DVD, etc.
A formal description of a published or non-published item, print or non-print, which comprises all the descriptive data elements contained in or accommodated by an electronic bibliographic format such as the MARC record or a bibliographic database item record.
A list of books, articles, and other materials about a particular subject or by a particular author. Entries in this list usually follow a specified format such as the APA or CBE Style guides and are sometimes accompanied by an annotation. A bibliography is generally found at the end of a book or article, but may comprise the entire article or book in and of itself.
An evaluation of a book, usually published in a periodical or newspaper.
Referring to logical or algebraic operations. A technique of using the most basic conceivable forms of expression to represent any logical possibility. This was first developed and codified by the English mathematician George Frederick Boole. The use of the terms "and", "or", "not" in formulating online search commands is based on Boolean logic.
Boolean operators (and, or, not) are pre-set established symbols used in online searching to specify and control the relationship between search terms. For example: AND requires all specified terms to be somewhere in the bibliographic record. It narrows your search by telling the search interface to find records that contain ALL of your search terms, e.g. A and B and C.
OR requires any or all of the specified terms to be somewhere in the bibliographic record. It broadens your search by telling the search interface to find records that contain ANY of your search terms, e.g. A or B or C.
NOT (sometimes phrased as AND NOT or BUT NOT) requires that the terms following NOT be excluded from the bibliographic record. It tells the search interface to exclude any record containing the search term following the word NOT. Records containing that term will not be retrieved, e.g. A not B. Because it affects everything which follows the NOT, the NOT phrase should be the last part of the entire boolean search statement.
Issues of a serial grouped by time period and bound together in a hardcover to preserve for long-term use. Bound periodicals are shelved with the books in the library. (See Serials)
enA collection of subject-related materials housed at a separate location from the main library. Virginia Tech has three branch libraries: Art + Architecture, Veterinary Medicine and the Northern Virginia Center Resource Center.
A call number is the address of each book or journal within the library. It is like a street address within a city. Call numbers also place books and journals on the same subject next to each other on the shelf. There are several systems of call numbers; for example, the Dewey Decimal Classification System and the Library of Congress Classification System are the two primary systems. The Virginia Tech University Libraries use the Library of Congress Classification System, except for US federal government documents. These are shelved according to the Superintendent of Documents (SUDOC) document numbering system.
Any materials which can be checked out of the library. Some materials do not circulate, but remain permanently in the library.
A set of bibliographic elements (ie author, title, publisher, journal title, volume, page numbers, etc) that refers to a work and is
complete enough to provide unique identification of that work. This information specifically identifies an individual book, journal article, video, etc.
Preferred terms or phrases that are designated for use in a catalog, database, or other retrieval tool to be used for all the various phrases and words used to describe a concept. May also be called descriptors or subject headings, and be listed in a thesaurus. Different disciplines will use different controlled vocabularies.
Grouping of data for a particular purpose or for the use of a particular set of End users, usually organized via Fields, and providing tools to enable manipulation of the data such as sorting, grouping, and extraction. Normally stored in computer files, or on CD-ROM, a database might contain bibliographic data, or numerical, statistical material, etc., and may be assembled and marketed commercially, or by an organization, library, or individual. The Virginia Tech Libraries uses the term "database" in a very broad sense to mean any online library resource.
Library classification system devised by Melvil Dewey in 1873 which divides knowledge into 10 main categories or classes: 0 General works, 1 Philosophy, 2 Religion, 3 Sociology, 4 Philology, 5 Natural Science, 6
Useful Arts, 7 Fine Arts, 8 Literature, 9 History. These ten classes have further subdivisions
which are indicated by decimal notations. Many school and public libraries use this system.
A thesis or treatise prepared as a condition for the award of a higher degree or diploma--generally associated with the Doctoral degree.
An ebook is an online version of a book, manuscript or monograph that can be read on a computer or specialized ereader device. Many (but not all) ebooks can be downloaded for offline use.
Facets are essentially independent properties or dimensions by which we can classify an object. For instance, a book might be classified using an author facet, a subject facet, and a date facet. Facets are used to limit search results in many databases, including Summon.
A defined subdivision of a record used to record only a specific category of data or data element. The position of a data element (or set of data elements) and regarded as a single descriptive element. A field may be allocated a unique identification symbol in the record format. A particular section of a computer record, e.g. in a bibliographic record, the author or the publication date of a document. Fields may be of fixed or variable length.
A book too large to fit in its normal shelf space and is therefore placed in a specially designated area of the library. The University Libraries currently shelve Folios on the 1st floor. Other more formal definitions of this term derive from the book printing world.
Any publication originating in, or issued with the imprint of, or at the expense and by the authority of, any office of a legally organized government or international organization. Sometimes called public documents. In the Virginia Tech University Libraries most U.S. federal government documents are arranged according to the Superintendent of Documents Classification System and shelved separately on the Second Floor. (See also Superintendent of Documents Classification System)
A list, usually appended to the short Bibliographic Record in Addison, of all the volumes of a journal, or volumes or copies of a book, which the University Libraries own. It is necessary to look at this list to determine whether or not the Libraries have the volume you need. In many instances, the Libraries will not have all the volumes of a particular journal or book.
The University Libraries InterLibrary Loan Department's electronic system for receiving, processing, and managing interlibrary loan requests.
A systematic guide to the contents of a document or group of documents such as serials, books, conference proceedings, etc., consisting of an ordered (usually alphabetic) arrangement of terms (usually subjects, authors, and keywords) -- including the information necessary to access the contents of these documents. Originally all indices were print publications. With the advent of computers, many indices began appearing in an electronic format as well. Electronic versions of print indices are frequently referred to as databases. The electronic indices available to the Virginia Tech community are accessed from the Article/databases of the University Libraries website.
A transaction in which, upon request, one library lends an item from its collection, or furnishes a copy of the item, to another library not under the same administration or on the same campus. The InterLibrary Loan service is available to all Virginia Tech faculty, students, and staff. Requests are made electronically.
See Serials. The Virginia Tech Libraries often uses Journal to stand for all types of periodicals, including magazines and newspapers.
A grammatical element or word which conveys the significant meaning of a document. The word or words which indicate the subject matter of a document. The significant word or words in the title, abstract, or text of a work which convey the primary subject content of that document.
The use of KEYWORDS to retrieve relevant books, articles, or other data in electronic information retrieval systems.Keywords do not include "unimportant" words like articles (a, an, the) or prepositions (in, with, on). See also Natural language searching.
The University Libraries service which retrieves books, journal articles, and other materials located in the storage building or in a branch library. Requests for Courier Service are made electronically.
The classification system developed and used at the Library of Congress, beginning in 1897. It typifies the enumerative method of classification and allows for continued growth and expansion. The notation or numbering scheme is mixed using a combination of letters and numbers. The basic outline is as follows: A General works, Polygraphy; B Philosophy, Religion; C Auxiliary Science of History; D Universal and Old World History (and Topography) except America; E-F America; G Geography, Anthropology, Folklore. Manners and Customs, Sports and Games; H Social Sciences, Economics, Sociology; J Political Science; L Education; M Music; N Fine Arts; P Language and Literature; PN-PZ Literary History, Literature; Q Science; R Medicine; S Agriculture, Plant and Animal Industry, Fish Culture and Fisheries, Hunting, Sports; T Technology; U Military Science; V Naval Science; Z Bibliography and Library Science. The VT University Libraries uses the Library of Congress Classification System.
A standardized list of terms (or Thesaurus) established by the Library of Congress for use as Subject Headings. Subject headings, generally, are words or groups of words under which books and other materials on any given subject are listed in a library's catalog, an index, or bibliographic database. Lists of subject headings generally include references made to and from each term, notes explaining the scope or usage of certain headings, and occasionally corresponding classification numbers. The VT University Libraries uses the Library of Congress Subject Headings list. A copy of this list (4 volumes) is kept at each Reference Desk. (See also Subject headings, Thesaurus)
The length of time allowed for the use of an item checked out of the library. Loan periods can vary by material type (book vs. journal) or patron type (undergraduate vs. faculty).
The Location is the physical building or specified part of a building in which a book, serial, or other type of material will be found. This information for each item is found in a table on the Addison screen.
An acronym for Medical Subject Headings. This controlled vocabulary system is determined by the National Library of Medicine, and is used for indexing articles, cataloging materials, and searching MESH-indexed databases. Some newer materials in Addison will list MeSH terms, though these were systematically deleted for many years.
Any material which has been reduced in size by photographic methods. FICHE, FILM & CARDS are types of microforms. All microforms in the University Libraries are located on the 1st floor of Newman Library.
A book or any publication which is not a serial.
Some search engines or databases allow searching with Natural Language questions instead of keyword search statements constructed by formal rules; e.g. “what is the effect of advertising on children’s eating habits?” (natural language) versus “advertising and eating habit* and children” (formal search statement). See also Keyword searching.
Items that must be used in the library, i.e., reference books, current periodicals and some reserve materials.
A computer-based and supported library catalog (bibliographic database) replacing the card catalog. OPACs were originally designed to be accessed by library patrons from networked terminals within the library or connected to the library network. Today, web technology makes it possible to access and use library OPACs from any location in the world.
Items not returned to the library by the due date.
The process of obtaining impartial opinions from the research and academic community in order to ascertain whether papers submitted for publication in journals or at conferences are of a suitable standard. The opinions are sought by publishers and conference organizers, and are requested from those whose expertise and stature are similar to the authors.
The published record of a meeting of a society, association, institution, or other organization, often accompanied by abstracts or reports of papers presented. Sometimes synonymous with Transactions.
A code or term used primarily in online searching which enables the relationship between two or more search terms to be defined. For example, one symbol indicates that two key words should be adjacent, another that they should appear in the same sentence, a third that they must appear in the same field, and a fourth that the key words can be anywhere in citation. Other types of proximity operators indicate that the terms must be within a specified number of characters or words of each other. Examples include NEAR, WITHIN, BEFORE, and AFTER. (See also Boolean operators)
Said of a periodical or other serial when manuscripts are evaluated by at least one subject specialist in addition to the editor before being accepted for publication. (See also Peer review)
A collection of books and other materials useful for supplying authoritative information or identifying sources of information. These materials are kept together, generally in a reference area, for convenience in providing information services and are not allowed to circulate outside the library.
To extend the period of time for which a book or other item is on loan; to assign a new and extended due date
A collection of materials segregated, usually temporarily, from the general collection and assigned a restricted loan period so as to assure greater availability to certain user groups, such as students in a particular course, who will have need of these materials within a short period of time. Materials are generally placed on Reserve at the request of the course instructor.
Sources that are geared towards scholars with long, in-depth articles based on research. Scholar journals go thropugh an editorial process, but not necessarily peer review. See also Serials and Peer review.
Software (generally written and owned by database vendors) which allows an end-user to search an electronic index or database and retrieve relevant articles or other data. The searching algorithms which underlie these search interfaces are quite different in their sophistication, efficiency, and effectiveness. Each search interface is unique to the vendor who develops it. Hence the appearance of each interface, the boolean search capabilities, and the symbols chosen to represent truncation and wildcard characters vary, often markedly, from one interface to another.
A formal request to the circulation department to thoroughly look for a book that a patron has not been able to find in the library. Request a search using an online form.
A publication in any medium issued in successive parts, appearing at intervals, usually regular ones, and, as a rule, intended to be continued indefinitely. The term includes periodicals, newspapers, annuals, numbered monographic series, and the proceedings, transactions, or memoirs of societies. SCHOLARLY JOURNALS -- contain articles on research and development, news, proceedings, or transactions in a particular subject area. Scholarly journals are primarily written for academicians and researchers. Most of them are subject-specific and refereed or peer reviewed. Some scholarly journals are inter-disciplinary. Examples of scholarly journals are: Scientific American, Natural History, Journal of Animal Science, Scientia Horticulturae MAGAZINES -- contain news stories or articles on a variety of subjects and are written for a general audience. Examples of magazines are: U. S. News and World Report, Life, Outdoor Life TRADE JOURNAL -- news and information written for professionals within a particular business or industry. Typically they include a great deal of advertising. The authors of articles in this type of journal are frequently professionals writing for each other. Examples of trade journals are: Feedstuffs NEWSPAPERS -- may be issued daily, weekly, or semiweekly. They contain news, opinions, advertisements, and other items of current, often local, interest. Examples of newspapers are: The Roanoke Times, The Washington Post.
In a bibliographic record in a database or index, this is the field which identifies the primary, larger work which contains the selected article, book chapter, conference paper, etc. It is the Source work which will be listed in a library's online catalog. For example, the title of a Serial will be listed in an online catalog, but the articles that Serial contains will not be listed.
Collections of unusual or scarce materials such as rare books, manuscripts, historical maps, drawings, paintings, photographs, etc., as well as the institution's own archives. These materials are housed in a special section of the library which is climate controlled and secured.
Book shelves containing the principal book collection of the Library. In the University Libraries the stacks are located on floors 2, 3, 4, and 5. For a map of these stack locations see the Virtual Tour of Newman Library.
The off-site shelving area for less heavily used library materials. A free delivery service is provided for the retrieval of these books and journals. All materials from the storage building must be picked up at the Circulation Desk in Newman or one of the Branch Libraries. (See also Library courier service)
Subject headings, generally, are words or groups of words under which books, journal articles, or other materials on a given subject are listed in a library catalog, an index, or bibliographic database. Lists of subject headings generally include cross references from subordinate terms to primary terms and notes defining what is included within the scope of a given term. These lists of pre-defined, controlled subject terms are particularly helpful when searching electronic indices. (See also Library of Congress subject headings, Thesaurus)
The classification system used by the U.S. Superintendent of Documents for the arrangement of federal government publications. Arrangement is basically by issuing agency. This is sometimes known as the Checklist Classification.
A compilation of terms showing synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships and dependencies, the function of which is to provide a standardized, controlled vocabulary for information storage and retrieval. Its component parts are an index vocabulary and a lead-in vocabulary. While the best known thesaurus is Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, a number of indices or databases also have thesauri. The ERIC thesaurus, the CAB thesaurus, and the Library of Congress Subject Headings are examples of these. These lists of pre-defined, controlled vocabulary can be very helpful when searching databases which use thesauri. (See also Library of Congress subject headings, Subject headings)
A paper or treatise reporting original research and prepared as a requirement for a Masters Degree.
A periodical that publishes news and other items of interest for a particular trade or industry.
In electronic index or database searching, to cut the search term short at any point in order to retrieve all terms with a common root or both the singular and plural forms of a word. For example, market* will find markets, marketing, marketplace, etc. Different Search Interfaces use different symbols to indicate that a word is to be truncated.
Sun, May 19: 9:00am - 6:00pm
Mon-Fri, May 20-24: 7:30am - 8:00pm
Sat-Sun, May 25-26: 9:00am - 6:00pm
Mon, May 27: Closed
Our primary tour option for individuals is a self-guided, audio tour option with a graded quiz that can be used to show attendance for classes that require participation or give extra credit.
The tour consists of 16 different information stops/points, accessible by using a device to scan a QR code. Once scanned using the camera in your mobile device and its built-in reader or a separate app, your device will play an audio track (with some photos/videos) explaining the different services that are offered in Newman Library and how our collections are organized. The audio track at each stop will direct you to the next stop, where you will scan the next QR code.
To take the tour you will either need to use a smartphone or tablet, have access to Virginia Tech’s wireless network (we recommend wireless over a cellular data network since several sections of the library get little to no cellular signal), and have headphones or earbuds to hear the narration. If you do not have a suitable device, then you can check out an iPad at the Circulation Desk. The Circulation staff will show you how to take the tour.