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Chicago Defender (1910-1975) from Black Studies Center

Feb. 24, 2011 – On May 5, 1905, Robert Sengstacke Abbott founded the Chicago Defender in a small kitchen in his landlord’s apartment, with an initial investment of 25 cents and a press run of 300 copies. The Chicago Defender’s first issues were in the form of four-page, six-column handbills, filled with local news items gathered by Abbott and clippings from other newspapers. Five years later, the Chicago Defender began to attract a national audience.

By the start of World War I, the Chicago Defender was the nation’s most influential Black weekly newspaper, with more than two thirds of its readership base located outside of Chicago. During World War I, the paper utilized its influence to wage a successful campaign in support of “The Great Migration.” It published blazing editorials, articles and cartoons lauding the benefits of the North, posted job listings and train schedules to facilitate relocation, and declared on May 15, 1917 as the date of the “Great Northern Drive.” The Chicago Defender’s support of The Great Migration caused Southern readers to migrate to the North in record numbers. Between 1916 and 1918, at least 110,000 people migrated to Chicago, nearly tripling the city’s Black population.

Following the war, the Defender covered controversial events such as the Red Summer Riots of 1919, a series of race riots in cities across the country. The Chicago Defender campaigned for anti-lynching legislation and for integrated sports. In 1923, the Chicago Defender introduced the Bud Billiken Page, the first newspaper section just for children.

Columnists at the Defender included Walter White and Langston Hughes. The paper also published the early works by Pulitzer Prize winning poet Gwendolyn Brooks. Heralding itself as the “The World’s Greatest Weekly,” the Defender spoke out against segregation of the armed forces in the early 40s and actively challenged segregation in the South during the civil rights era. In 1956, the Chicago Defender began publishing on a daily basis.