Bibliometrics (and altmetrics) are ways to measure and compare research publications, authors, departments, and institutions. These metrics allow one to
Journal metrics allow comparison of journals for purposes of
Article metrics attempt to measure the research impact of articles (and their authors).
Citations for books and book chapters are not tracked as well as journal articles. In some disciplines, book reviews (and where those reviews were published) may be more important than cited references. These tools may be more useful than the traditional cited reference tools.
Author metrics attempt to measure and compare researcher impact. One of the primary author metrics is the h-index, which combines productivity and impact measures. Alternative metrics include
As more research literature is published online, the ability to analyze relationship among these publications has become easier. There are several tools that can be sued to analyze and rank these relationship (though Virginia Tech does not subscribe to all of them).